China’s robotaxis charged forward in 2021 – TechCrunch

Autonomous driving startups in China are in an arms race to place passengers of their machine-driven automobiles. Each few weeks, information arrives that one other main participant has bought the greenlight to launch a brand new pilot program or a small-scale service.

These press releases, usually dotted with regulatory jargon and flowery language to aggrandize the businesses’ progress, might be complicated. That’s why we put collectively this submit summarizing the progress of China’s main robotaxi operators — AutoX, Baidu,, Didi, Momenta, and WeRide — in 2021 whereas making an attempt to parse what their bulletins really imply.

A lot of the main gamers have been testing drivered (autonomous automobiles with in-car security operators) and driverless automobiles for a while in China, so this submit will concentrate on their public-facing providers that run frequently. Whereas navigating the prices, security and laws round robotaxis, these corporations have additionally dabbled into areas which might be faster to scale, reminiscent of self-driving vans, goods-hauling vans and metropolis buses, although robotaxis stay their focus in the long term.

A number of issues to notice about China’s autonomous driving house

Earlier than we dive in, it’s value highlighting a couple of circumstances distinctive to China’s autonomous car sector.

  1. Highway situations within the nation can differ significantly. An autonomous driving take a look at that takes place in an industrial park in suburban Shenzhen, as an example, will encounter a lot less complicated site visitors than one which runs in a meandering city village downtown.
  2. Rules on autonomous automobiles can differ throughout provinces — and even completely different districts inside the identical metropolis. An organization that obtains approval to run a completely driverless take a look at in a single metropolis isn’t essentially extra technologically superior than its friends; it may merely imply it’s cozy with an area regulator with a progressive perspective towards self-driving.
  3. Some regional governments are focusing on sensible transportation as their progress technique. Naturally, they’re eager to assist autonomous car startups. Authorities might give a casual nod to unmanned driving assessments of their jurisdictions effectively earlier than nationwide or city-level laws are rubberstamped.
  4. Authorities assist may also manifest in methods like tax breaks, entry to favorable land use and low cost workplace house. That’s partially why China’s main autonomous car startups are concentrated in well-resourced cities like Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Suzhou.
  5. Native governments in China usually arrange pilot zones to spur the event of rising applied sciences, like self-driving. Such initiatives enable corporations to experiment with out the standard regulatory constraints that rein within the extra mature industries.
  6. As of at present, no metropolis in China has issued a allow for driverless robotaxis, which might enable an autonomous automobile to move the general public and not using a security operator as Waymo and Cruise can in San Francisco. A number of cities have granted permits for absolutely driverless assessments on public roads.


Headquartered in Shenzhen with an R&D heart in California, AutoX was based in 2016 by former Princeton professor Jianxiong Xiao. Its traders embody Alibaba, MediaTek and Chinese language state-owned carmaker SAIC Auto.

AutoX’s robotaxi in Shenzhen / Picture: AutoX (2021)


In August 2020, AutoX started providing drivered robotaxi rides to the general public in Shanghai’s Jiading. Customers can e book journeys by way of Alibaba’s Amap navigation map, which AutoX mentioned was the “first time” a robotaxi service had turn out to be accessible on a serious Chinese language ride-hailing platform.

Jiading, a suburban district of Shanghai, has attracted a clutch of main automakers and OEMs like SAIC Auto, Volkswagon, NIO, Toyota, Baidu, Didi and Delphi to arrange places of work. AutoX mentioned in 2020 that it had struck a cope with the Shanghai authorities to place 100 “self-driving automobiles” on town’s public roads.

In January 2021, AutoX rolled out a driverless robotaxis service in Shenzhen’s Pingshan, an industrial district that’s refashioning itself as a “sensible metropolis.” In November, AutoX mentioned this system had lined the whole 168 sq. kilometers of Pingshan, which is sort of 3 times Manhattan’s dimension.

Only a month earlier than, AutoX put a fleet of 25 unmanned autonomous automobiles on the general public roads of Shenzhen in a “take a look at”. A Chinese language auto information weblog reported that the startup went forward and not using a license from the native transportation regulator, although AutoX advised TechCrunch that it had obtained “authorities assist.” We have been unable to achieve the related division on the time.

Altogether, AutoX mentioned it has “a number of hundred” robotaxis on the street.

U.S. assessments 

As of November 2021, AutoX held the testing permits for each drivered and driverless testing in California.

OEM companions 

AutoX has been working with Honda and Fiat Chrysler to develop robotaxis in China.

Baidu Apollo Go

Apollo Go is the autonomous driving entrance of search engine titan Baidu, the Beijing-based web agency based in 2000. Baidu kickstarted its autonomous driving unit in late 2015, across the identical time most of its startup opponents have been born.

Baidu’s Apollo Go robotaxi service in China / Picture: Baidu (2021)


In November 2021, Apollo Go was approved to offer paid robotaxi service in China’s “first-ever demo zone for business autonomous driving” in Beijing.

The fleet of 67 automobiles, monitored by in-car security drivers, was Apollo Go’s “first business deployment” on open roads. The service was accessible for hailing by way of Apollo Go’s app and ran on daily basis from 7 am to 10 pm.

Apollo Go bought to partake in China’s “first business robotaxi demo zone,” although it wasn’t the primary to supply rides for compensations (spoiler: see WeRide’s part beneath). However the occasion carried a lot symbolic weight. The pilot space, spanning 60 sq. kilometers, sits contained in the Beijing Financial and Technological Improvement Zone, a state-level financial undertaking in suburban Yizhuang. It launched a regulatory framework to stipulate how robotaxi operators may make the most of passenger information and value their providers. Developments within the capital metropolis may turn out to be a mannequin for the remainder of China.

Yizhuang isn’t solely selling robotaxis; different forms of autonomous automobiles are additionally welcome in its broader “related automobiles demo zone.” Quite a lot of tech giants, together with and Meituan, began testing unmanned supply minivans there final 12 months.

The free model of Apollo Go is on the market to the general public in sure areas of Guangzhou, Changsha and Cangzhou, and is presently recruiting early testers in Shanghai.

U.S. assessments

As of November 2021, Apollo held the testing permits for each drivered and driverless testing in California.

OEM companions 

Apollo Go’s robotaxi fleets are provided by state-owned FAW Group’s Hongqi,  EV startup WM Motor, state-owned GAC’s EV line Aion, and state-owned BAIC’s younger EV line Arcfox.

Shenzhen-based Deeproute has made appreciable progress for an organization that’s merely two years previous. In 2019, Zhou Guang based Deeproute after he left his final autonomous driving enterprise amid firm infighting. The younger entrepreneur shortly garnered assist for his new endeavor. Final September, Deeproute raised a whopping $300 million in a Collection B spherical from traders together with Alibaba and Chinese language automaker Geely.

Deeproute’s robotaxi service in Shenzhen / Picture: (2021)


In July, Deeproute deployed 20 drivered robotaxis on the general public roads in Shenzhen’s downtown Futian district, which is near its headquarters within the tech collaboration zone established by the governments of Hong Kong and Shenzhen.

The robotaxi service, which launched after the corporate obtained a allow from Shenzhen’s transport regulator in April, continues to be free to the general public with plans to cost passengers sooner or later, the corporate advised TechCrunch.

Final March, Deeproute’s robotaxi fleets, co-developed with state-owned Dongfeng Motor, started providing free rides to the general public in Wuhan. The town in central China is one other contender racing to turn out to be a pioneer in China’s autonomous driving area.

U.S. assessments

As of November 2021, Deeproute held the testing allow for drivered autonomous car testing in California.

OEM companions

The startup and Dongfeng have plans to deploy no fewer than 200 robotaxis by 2022.


The ride-hailing big has been quieter than anticipated about its robotaxi ambitions, given it carved out an autonomous driving subsidiary in 2019 and shortly raised a $500 million spherical for the brand new entity — the only largest funding spherical within the trade on the time.

It wouldn’t be a shock if Didi has been distracted by different issues. Shortly following its U.S. public itemizing final 12 months, the agency was hit with an information probe by Chinese language regulators. In December, the Chinese language experience hailing big introduced it might delist from the New York Inventory Alternate.

Didi’s robotaxi service in Shanghai / Picture: Didi (2020)


Didi’s robotaxi service started selecting up passengers in some areas of Shanghai in June 2020. The corporate mentioned it might broaden its robotaxi service to Beijing and Shenzhen by the top of 2020 earlier than replicating the scheme exterior China in 2021. It has but to replace its progress. The corporate additionally set an bold aim to function multiple million “self-driving automobiles” by way of its experience hailing platform by 2030.

U.S. assessments

As of November 2021, Didi held the testing allow for drivered autonomous car testing in California.

OEM companions

In April 2021, Didi introduced that Geely-owned Volvo could be supplying its world robotaxi fleets.


In contrast to most different robotaxi operators, which concentrate on Degree 4 absolutely autonomous driving tech, five-year-old Momenta can be touting superior driver help methods (ADAS) to automakers. This strategy helps rake in short-term earnings however is questioned by trade observers as as to whether the startup is devoting sufficient sources to actual driverless tech.

Robotaxis co-developed by Momenta and SAIC Motor / Picture: Momenta (2021)

Nonetheless, Suzhou-based Momenta has turn out to be some of the funded autonomous car startups in China. It has raised $2 billion from a gaggle of high-profile traders, from Normal Motors, Daimler, Bosch, Toyota, Chinese language state-owned automaker SAIC to Nio Capital, a fund overseen by Nio’s founder William Li.

In contrast to most of its friends which have arrange R&D forces or are testing within the U.S., Momenta picked Germany as its launch pad for worldwide enlargement. In 2021, it opened an workplace in Stuttgart, the yard of its investor Daimler.


In December 2021, Momenta and SAIC launched a free robotaxi service in sure components of Shanghai. Customers may summon these drivered automobiles by way of SAIC’s app from 8 am to 10 pm on daily basis. This system was “testing and validating potential business functions with 20 automobiles,” mentioned Momenta. This system had plans to roll out in Suzhou and Shenzhen within the upcoming months.

The corporate has gained substantial assist from the federal government of Suzhou, an prosperous metropolis adjoining to Shanghai. It has a three way partnership with the Suzhou department of the State-owned Belongings Supervision and Administration Fee of the State Council (SASAC) to “scale up” robotaxi deployment within the metropolis. SASAC is a robust authorities physique in China that has oversight of 100 or so massive state-owned enterprises.

OEM companions

Momenta has been working with SAIC on its robotaxi fleets. The companions aimed to deploy 200 automobiles throughout China by 2022.

Pony was based in 2016 by two veterans of Baidu’s autonomous car arm, a workforce that had spawned a few of China’s most respected AV consultants. The corporate, with places of work in Guangzhou and California, has raised over $1 billion to this point with backings from Toyota.

Pony’s Lexus robotaxi in Shanghai / Picture: (2021)


Other than Baidu, Pony additionally obtained approval to function paid robotaxi providers in Beijing’s sensible car demo zone final November. The service, referred to as PonyPilot+, had been ferrying passengers at no cost in the identical space.

Final July, PonyPilot+ debuted in Jiading, Shanghai’s automotive hub. In June, Pony added absolutely driverless automobiles to its current robotaxi fleet in Guangzhou.

U.S. assessments

In November, the California Division of Motor Automobiles notified Pony that it was suspending its driverless testing allow following a reported collision in Fremont. The choice got here six months after Pony obtained the regulatory greenlight. The corporate’s drivered testing allow in California wasn’t affected.

OEM companions

A number of producers have provided Pony’s robotaxis, together with Toyota’s Lexus, Hyundai, in addition to China’s BYD and Aion.

WeRide and Pony share many roots. Each have bases in Guangzhou and California, with founders who hailed from Baidu’s autonomous driving workforce. Based in 2017, WeRide raised greater than $600 million simply inside 2021. Its traders embody state-owned GAC and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi.

WeRide’s robotaxi fleet provided by Dongfeng / Picture: WeRide (2021)


In November 2019, WeRide’s drivered robotaxis started ferrying the general public in a 144 square-kilometer space of Guangzhou. The service was a collaboration with the government-owned Baiyun Taxi Group, the most important taxi firm in South China.

WeRide was in a position to cost passengers at Guangzhou’s taxi fee from the outset, which predated the paid providers of Baidu and Pony in Beijing.

This can be a acquainted state of affairs the place opponents clamor to label their packages the “first” in China. The claims are legitimate in their very own proper however deserve nearer discernment. As an trade insider mentioned, “Beijing is extra influential as a coverage bellwether;” however to companies, the distinction between operating a paid robotaxi service in Beijing and Guangzhou “isn’t that large.”

“Whether or not it’s Beijing or Guangzhou, so long as town has pleasant insurance policies, that’s excellent news. In spite of everything, robotaxi corporations simply wish to take a look at their operations,” the particular person mentioned.

WeRide additionally operates a drivered robotaxi service in Wuhan.

U.S. assessments

As of November 2021, WeRide held the testing permits for each drivered and driverless testing in California.

OEM companions

WeRide and its strategic investor GAC mentioned in December that they deliberate to construct a fleet of “tens of 1000’s of” robotaxis within the coming years.

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